Mating system evolution in fishes

Since my dissertation work in the 1980’s, I have been involved in the evolution of several aspects of fish reproductive anatomy and behavior.  These break down into thee major areas of research, the evolution of fertlization success and gamete characteristics, the evolution of reproductive behavior and sex allocation in simultaneous hermphrodites, and the evolution of parental care patterns and sexual size dimorphism in fishes. Mixed into this is a fourth area, the evolution of the timing and location of spawning in marine fishes. An older general review paper that addresses several of these issues:
Petersen, C.W. & R.R. Warner. 2002. The ecological context of reproductive behavior.  Pp. 103-118 In: Coral Reef Fishes: Dynamics and Diversity in a Complex Ecosystem.  P.Sale editor.  Academic Press

Evolution of fertilization success and gamete characteristics. How does sperm allocation evolve in male fishes, how do they allocate sperm among spawns in a day, and how much energy do they devote to gamete production versus other investments?  This work includes measuring fertilization success in the field, much of it with collaborator Bob Warner at UCSB, and work on the evolution of sperm characteristics with collaborator Carlotta Mazzoldi at the University of Padova.  The largest chunk of this work has been done on the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum).  This includes some review chapters in books examining the effects of exploitation of fishes on the potential for population-level effects due to reduced fertilization rates.  Some of the published work:

Petersen, C.W. and C. Mazzoldi.  2010. Fertilization in marine fishes: a review of the data and its application to conservation biology  pp. 203-240  In: Reproduction and Sexuality in Marine  Fishes: Patterns and Processes.  K.S. Cole Editor. University of California Press
Mazzoldi, C., C.W. Petersen & M.B. Rasotto.  2005. The influence of mating system on seminal vesicle variability among gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae).  Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 43:307-314
Petersen, C.W. & D. Levitan.  2001. The Allee effect: a barrier to recovery by exploited species.  Pp.281-300. In: Conservation of Exploited Species edited by J. D. Reynolds, G. Mace  K. H. Redford & J.G. Robinson,   Cambridge University Press.
Petersen, C.W., R.R. Warner, D.Y. Shapiro, & A. Marconato. 2001.  Components of fertilization success in the bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatumBehavioral Ecology 12:237-245.
Scaggiante, M., C. Mazzoldi, C.W. Petersen, & M.B.Rasotto. 1999.  Sperm competition and mode  of fertilization in the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus (Teleostei: Gobiidae).  Journal of Experimental Zoology 283:81-90
Petersen, C.W. & R.R. Warner. 1998. Sperm competition in fishes. pp. 435-463 In: Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection, edited by T. Birkhead and A. Moller.  Academic Press.
Marconato, A., D.Y. Shapiro, C.W.Petersen, R.R. Warner, & T. Yoshikawa. 1997. Methodological analysis of fertilization rate in the bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum: pair versus group spawns.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 161:61-70
Warner, R.R., D.Y. Shapiro, A. Marconato, & C.W. Petersen.  1995.  Sexual conflict: males with the highest mating success convey the lowest fertilization benefits to females.  Proceedings Royal Society of London Series B 262:135-139
Levitan, D. and C.W. Petersen. 1995. Sperm limitation in marine organisms.  Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 10: 228-231
Petersen, C.W., R.R. Warner, S. Cohen, H. Hess, & A. Sewell.  1992.  Variable pelagic fertilization success: implications for mate choice and spatial patterns of mating.  Ecology 73:391-401
Petersen, C.W. 1991. Variation in fertilization rate in the tropical reef fish, Halichoeres bivattatus: correlates and implications.  Biological Bulletin 181:232-237

Evolution of reproductive behavior and sex allocation in simultaneously hermaphroditic fishes. Several species in the seabass family Serranidae are simultaneous hermaphrodites.  My work has focused on how mating systems coevolve with sex allocation in these species, as well as describing the mating systems and the ecological factors that have led to certain types of mating systems.  Some of this work has been done with Eric Fischer.  Some of the published work:

Petersen, C.W. 2006.  Sexual selection and reproductive success in hermaphroditic seabasses.  Jounal of Integrative and Comparative Biology 46:439-448.
Petersen, C.W. & E.A. Fischer. 1996. Interspecific variation in sex allocation in a simultaneous  hermaphrodite: the effect of individual size.  Evolution 50:636-645
Petersen, C.W.  1995.  Reproductive biology, egg trading, and correlates of male mating success in the simultaneous hermaphrodite, Serranus tabacariusEnvironmental Biology of Fishes 43:351-361
Petersen, C.W. 1991. Variation in fertilization rate in the tropical reef fish, Halichoeres bivattatus: correlates and implications.  Biological Bulletin 181:232-237
Petersen, C.W. 1990. Sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites: testing local mate competition theory.  In Some Mathematical Questions in Biology.  Sex allocation and sex change: experiments and models. M. Mangel, editor. Pages 183 ‑ 205
Petersen, C.W.  1990. The relationships among population density, individual size, mating tactics, and reproductive success in a hermaphroditic fish, Serranus fasciatusBehaviour 113:57‑80.
Petersen, C.W. 1990. Variation in reproductive success and gonadal allocation in the simultaneous hermaphrodite, Serranus fasciatusOecologia 83:62‑67
Petersen, C.W.  1987.  Reproductive behaviour and gender allocation in Serranus fasciatus, hermaphroditic reef fish. Animal Behaviour 35:1601‑1614
Fischer, E.A. and C.W. Petersen. 1987. The evolution of sexual patterns in the seabasses. Bioscience 37:482‑489
Fischer, E.A. and C.W. Petersen.  1986.  Contrasts in the behavior of males and hermaphrodites in the hermaphroditic coral reef fish, Serranus baldwiniEthology 73:235‑246
Petersen, C.W. and E.A. Fischer.  1986. Mating system of the hermaphroditic coral‑reef fish, Serranus baldwiniBehavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 19:171‑178
Hastings, P.A. and C.W. Petersen.  1986. A novel sexual pattern in serranid fishes: simultaneous hermaphrodites and males in Serranus fasicatusEnvironmental Biology of Fishes 15:59‑68

Evolution of parental care patterns, filial cannibalism and sexual size dimorphism in fishes. Why is male parental care more common than female parental care in fishes? Why do males sometimes adopt unrelated offspring but at other times eat their own clutches?  Why are females larger than males in some species with male parental care, but the reverse can be true, even within the same genus?  These are some of the questions that I have tried to address in my research, the most recent work with sculpins, and past work with blennioid fishes with collaborator Phil Hastings at Scripps Institute of Oceanography and damselfishes.  Some of the published work:

Petersen, C.W. and H.C. Hess.  in press.  Evolution of parental behavior, egg size, and egg mass structure in sculpins.  In: Adaptation and Evolution in Cottoid Fishes. A. Goto, H. Munehara and M. Yabe Editors. Anticipated publication date: 2011.
Hastings, P.A. and C.W. Petersen.  2010. Parental care, oviposition sites and mating systems in blennioids pp. 91-116 In: Reproduction and Sexuality in Marine Fishes: Patterns and Processes. K.S. Cole Editor. University of California Press.
Petersen, C.W., C. Mazzoldi, K.A. Zarrella & R.B. Hale.  2005.   Fertilization mode, sperm characteristics, mate choice and parental care patterns in Artedius spp. (Cottidae).  Journal of  Fish Biology 67:239-254
Petersen, C.W., K. A. Zarrella, C. A. Ruben & C. Mazzoldi. 2004.  Reproductive biology of  the rosylip sculpin, an intertidal spawner.  Journal of Fish Biology 64:863-875
Petersen, C.W.  1995. Male mating success and female choice in permanently territorial damselfishes.  Bulletin of Marine Science 57:690-704
Petersen, C.W. & H. Hess. 1991. The adaptive significance of spawning synchronization in the dusky damselfish, Stegastes dorsopunicansJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 151:155-167
Petersen, C.W. 1990. The occurrence and dynamics of clutch loss and filial cannibalism in two Caribbean damselfishes.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 135:117‑133
Petersen, C.W. & K. Marchetti. 1989.  Filial cannibalism in the cortez damselfish Stegastes rectifraenumEvolution 43:158‑168
Petersen, C.W.  1989.  Females prefer mated males in the carmine triplefin, Axoclinus carminalis, a paternal brood guarder.  Environmental Biology of Fishes 26:213‑221
Petersen, C.W.  1988.  Male mating success, sexual size dimorphism, and site fidelity in two Malacoctenus (Labrisomidae) species.   Environmental Biology of Fishes 21:173‑183

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